Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2005 (DHS 2005) found HIV prevalence was 3% in the general population aged 15-49. HIV prevalence in urban areas (7.3%) was much higher than in rural areas (2.2%); and HIV prevalence in women (3.6%) significantly higher than in men (2.3%).
HIV prevalence data is also sourced from sentinel surveillance of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC). The most recent was done in 2007 and HIV prevalence in pregnant women was at 4.3%. Like the DHS data, the ANC data show significantly higher HIV prevalence in urban sites than in rural sites. Although older age groups are progressively more likely to be infected, the percentage of young pregnant women who are HIV infected remains very high, particularly for the 15-19 age group in Kigali. Both the DHS 2005 and the ANC 2007 data show regional variation in HIV prevalence (more details are provided below).
Rwanda’s response to HIV and AIDS was initiated by the PNLS (National Program for the Fight against AIDS) from 1987 until 2000, when the government restructured the PNLS into two new organizations known today as National AIDS Control Commission(CNLS) and the Treatment and research Center (TRAC Plus), which is under the supervision of the Ministry of Health (MOH). The CNLS has an Executive Secretariat, responsible for coordinating the National Multi-sectoral HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan. The Secretariat coordinates the national multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS with particular focus to key functions such as national policy development, partnerships, monitoring and evaluation.
Rwanda adheres to the “Three Ones” principles: the existence of one national coordinating body, one strategic national plan of action and one national monitoring and evaluation framework.